• Molecular mapping of virus-infected cells with immunogold and metal-tagging transmission electron microscopy. Martin Sachse, Isabel Fernández de Castro, Raquel Tenorio, Cristina Risco. Molecular Microbiology. 10.1111/mmi.15182. 2024.
  • Middle East respiratory coronavirus (MERS-CoV) internalized by llama alveolar macrophages does not result in virus replication or induction of pro-inflamatory cytokines. Jordi Rodon, Martin Sachse, Nigeer Te, Joaquim Segalés, Albert Bensaid, Cristina Risco, Júlia Vergara-Alert. Microbes and Infection. 10.1016/j.micinf.2023.105252. Vol 26. Issue 3.105252. 2024.


  • β-Cyclodextrins as affordable antivirals to treat coronavirus infection. D. Raïch-Regué, R.Tenorio, I.Fernández de Castro, F.Tarrés-Freixas, M. Sachse, D.Perez-Zsolt, J.Muñoz-Basagoiti, S.Y. Fernández-Sánchez (...) J.P.Cerón-Carrasco, N.Izquierdo-Useros, C.Risco. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 164 (2023) 114997. 2023.
  • Antiviral Activity of Acetylsalicylic Acid against Bunyamwera Virus in cell culture. Fernández -Sánchez, S.Y.; Cerón-Carrasco, J.P.; Risco, C.;  Fernández de Castro, I.  Viruses 15,948. 2023. 
  • Digoxin is a potent inhibitor of Bunyamwera virus infection in cell culture. Beatriz Pacheco, Alberto Fernández-Oliva, Moisés García-Serradilla, Cristina Risco. J. Gen. Virol. 104, 4, 10.1099/jgv.0.001838. 2023.



  • SARS-COV-2 interaction with Siglec-1 mediates trans-infection by dendritic cells. Daniel Perez-Zsolt, Jordana Muñoz-Basagoiti, Jordi Rodon, Marc Elosua-Bayes, Dàlia Raïch-Regué, Cristina Risco, Martin Sachse, et al. Cellular and Molecular Inmunology 18(12):2676-2678.2021.
  • Application of advanced imaging to the study of virus-host interactions. Cristina Risco. Editorial. Viruses 13, 1958. 2021
  • Siglec-1 on dendritic cells mediates SARS-CoV-2 trans-infection of target cells while on macrophages triggers proinflammatory responses. Perez-Zsolt, D., Muñoz-Basagoiti, J., Rodon, J., Elousa, M., Raïch-Regué, D., Risco, C., Sachse, M., et al., bioRxiv 10.1101/2021.05.11.44357. 2021
  • Electron Tomography to Study the Three-dimensional Structure of the Reovirus Egress Pathway in Mammalian Cells. Fernandez de Castro, I. et al.,. Bio-protocol 11(13): e4080. 2021
  • Light and electron microscopy imaging unveils new aspects of the antiviral capacity of silver nanoparticles in bunyavirus-infected cells. Moisés García-Serradilla, Cristina Risco. Virus Research 302: 198444. 2021
  • Ins and Outs of Reovirus: Vesicular Trafficking in Viral Entry and Egress. Alexa N.Roth, Pavithra Aravamudhan, Isabel Fernández de Castro, Raquel Tenorio, Cristina Risco, Terence S. Dermody. Trends in Microbiology 29 (4): 363-375.2021
  • Virus factories. Fernández de Castro*,I., Tenorio*R., Risco, C. Chapter in Encyclopedia of Virology, 4th edition, Elsevier.Fernández de Castro, Isabel, Tenorio, Raquel and Risco, Cristina. Virus Factories. In: Bamford, D.H. and Zuckerman, M (eds.) Encyclopedia of Virology, 4th Edition, vol. 1, pp. 495-500. Oxford: Academic Press. 2021.
    *equal contribution


  • A modified lysosomal organelle mediates nonlytic egress of reovirus. Fernández de Castro I, Tenorio R, Ortega-González P, Knowlton JJ, Zamora PF, Lee CH, Fernández JJ, Dermody TS, Risco C. J Cell Biol. 219(7): e201910131. 2020.


  • The viral replication organelles within cells studied by electron microscopy. Martin Sachse, Isabel Fernández de Castro, Raquel Tenorio,Cristina Risco. Advances in Virus Research, vol 105. Pages 1-33. 2019
  • Function, Architecture,and Biogenesis of Reovirus Replication Neoorganelles. Raquel Tenorio, Isabel Fernández de Castro, Jonathan J. Knowlton, Paula F. Zamora, Danica M. Sutherland, Cristina Risco, Terence S. Dermody. Review. Viruses 11(3), 288. 2019.
  • Drug repurposing for new, efficient, broad spectrum antivirals. Moisés García-Serradilla, Cristina Risco, Beatriz Pacheco. Review. Virus Research Volumen 264, pages 22-31.  2019.
  • Targeting host lipid flows: Exploring new antiviral and antibiotic strategies. Alberto Fernández-Oliva, Paula Ortega-González, Cristina Risco. Microreview. Cellular Microbiology 21 (3): e12996. 2019.


  • Metal-Tagging Transmission Electron Microscopy and Inmunogold Labeling on Tokuyasu Cryosections to Image Influenza A Virus Ribonucleoprotein Transport and Packaging. Sachse M., de Castro I.F., Fournier G., Naffakh N., Risco C. . In: Yamauchi Y. (eds) Influenza Virus. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1836. Human press, New York, NY. 2018. 
  • Reovirus σNS and μNS proteins remodel the endoplasmic reticulum to build replication neo-organelles. Raquel Tenorio, Isabel Fernández de Castro, Jonathan J. Knowlton, Paula F. Zamora, Christopher H. Lee, Bernardo A. Mainou, Terence S. Dermody and Cristina Risco. mBio 9:e01253-18. 2018.
  • Metal-tagging Transmission Electron Microscopy for Localisation of Tombusvirus Replication Compartments in Yeast. Fernández de Castro, I. and Risco, C.  Bio-protocol 8(8): e2822. 2018.
  • The TRiC chaperonin controls reovirus replication through outer-capsid folding. Knowlton JJ, Fernández de Castro I, Ashbrook AW, Gestaut DR, Zamora PF, Bauer JA, Forrest JC, Frydman J, Risco C, Dermody TS. Nature Microbiology 3, pages 481–493 . 2018.



  • Virus assembly factories in a lipid world. Fernández de Castro, I., Tenorio, R., Risco, C. Curr Opin Virol.18:20-26. 2016.
  • Viral Replication Protein Inhibits Cellular Cofilin Actin Depolymerization Factor to Regulate the Actin Network and Promote Viral Replicase Assembly. Nawaz-Ul-Rehman MS, Prasanth KR, Xu K, Sasvari Z, Kovalev N, de Castro Martín IF, Barajas D, Risco C, Nagy PD. PLoS Pathog. 12(2):e1005440. 2016.
  • The role of viral RNA and co-opted cellular ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III factors in formation of tombusvirus spherules harboring the tombusvirus replicase. Kovalev N, Martín IF, Pogany J, Barajas D, Pathak K, Risco C, Nagy PD. J Virol. 20: 02775-15. 2016.


  • Imaging RNA virus replication assemblies: bunyaviruses and reoviruses. Fernandez de Castro I., Risco C. Future Virology. 9 (12): 1089-1104. 2014.
  • Co-opted Oxysterol-Binding ORP and VAP Proteins Channel Sterols to RNA Virus Replication Sites via Membrane Contact Sites. Barajas D., Xu K., Fernandez de Castro Martin I., Sasvari Z., Brandizzi F., Risco C., Nagy P.D. PLoS Pathog. 10(10): e1004388. 2014.
  • Noncanonical role for the host Vps4 AAA+ ATPase ESCRT protein in the formation of Tomato bushy stunt virus replicase. Barajas* D., Fernández de Castro* I., Pogany J., Risco C., Nagy P.D.  PLoS Pathog. 10(4):e1004087. (*) Equal contribution. 2014.
  • 3D Imaging of Viral Infections. Risco C., Fernández de Castro I., Sanz-Sánchez L., Narayan K., Grandinetti G., Subramaniam S. Annual Review of Virology. Vol. 1: 453-473. 2014.
  • Metallothioneins for Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy. In: Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy.  Fernández de Castro, I., Sanz-Sánchez, L., & Risco, C. Methods in Cell Biology, vol 124, Chapter 3, pp. 55-70. Elsevier, ISSN 0091-679X. 2014.
  • Reovirus forms neo-organelles for progeny particle assembly within reorganized cell membranes. Fernández de Castro I., Zamora Paula F., Ooms L., Fernández J.J., M.-H. La C., Mainou Bernardo A, Dermody Terence S., Risco C. MBio. 5(1): e00931-13. 2014.


  • Multilamellar structures and filament bundles are found on the cell surface during bunyavirus egress. Sanz-Sánchez L., Risco C. PLoS ONE. 8(6): e65526. 2013.
  • Bunyamwera virus possesses a distinct nucleocapsid protein to facilitate genome encapsidation. Li B., Wang Q., Pan X., Fernández de Castro I., Sun Y., Guo Y., Tao X., Risco C., Sui S.F., Lou Z. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(22):9048-53. 2013.
  • Virus factories: biogenesis and structural design. Fernández de Castro, I., Volontè, L., Risco, C. Cell Microbiol. Special issue “Cell Biology of Microbes” 15(1):24-34. 2013.
  • Virus Morphogenesis in the Cell: Methods and Observations. Risco, C., Fernández de Castro, I. M.G. Mateu (ed.). Chapter 14 in: “Structure and Physics of Viruses: An Integrated Textbook”, Subcellular Biochemistry 68, DOI 10.1007/9789400765528_14, Springer SBM Dordrecht. 2013.


  • Specific, sensitive, high-resolution detection of protein molecules in eukaryotic cells using metal-tagging transmission electron microscopy. Risco C., Sanmartín-Conesa E., Tzeng W.P., Frey T.K., Seybold V., de Groot R.J. Structure. 20(5):759-66. 2012.


  • Self-protection and survival of arbovirus-infected mosquito cells. López-Montero N., Risco C. Cell Microbiol. 13(2):300-15. 2011.


  • Three-dimensional structure of Rubella virus factories. Fontana J., López-Iglesias C., Tzeng W.P., Frey T.K., Fernández J.J., Risco C. Virology. 405(2):579-91. 2010.


  • Cellular electron microscopy imaging reveals the localization of the Hfq protein close to the bacterial membrane. Diestra E., Cayrol B., Arluison V., Risco C. PLoS ONE. 4(12): e8301. 2009.
  • Visualization of proteins in intact cells with a clonable tag for electron microscopy. Diestra E., Fontana J., Guichard P., Marco S., Risco C. J Struct Biol. 165(3):157-68. 2009.


  • The unique architecture of Bunyamwera virus factories around the Golgi complex. Fontana J., López-Montero N., Elliott R.M., Fernández J.J., Risco C. Cell Microbiol. 10(10):2012-28. 2008.


  • Structural analysis of viral factories: from conventional microscopy to electron tomography. Fontana J., Lopez-Montero N., Risco C. Acta Microscopica. 16: 42-51. 2007.
  • Novel replication complex architecture in rubella replicon-transfected cells. Fontana J., Tzeng W.P., Calderita G., Fraile-Ramos A., Frey T.K., Risco C. Cell Microbiol. 9(4):875-90. 2007.



  • Studying cellular architecture in three dimensions with improved resolution: Ta replicas revisted. Cabezas P., Risco C. Cell Biol Int. 30: 747-754. 2006.


  • Cryo-electron tomography of vaccinia virus. Cyrklaff M., Risco C., Fernández J.J., Jiménez M.V., Estéban M., Baumeister W., Carrascosa J.L.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102(8):2772-7. 2005.
  • Key Golgi factors for structural and functional maturation of Bunyamwera virus. Novoa R.R., Calderita G., Cabezas P., Elliott R.M., Risco C.  J Virol. 79: 10852-10863. 2005.
  • Virus factories: associations of cell organelles for viral replication and morphogenesis. Novoa R.R, Calderita G., Arranz R., Fontana J., Granzow H., Risco C. Biol Cell. 97(2):147-72. 2005.


  • Structural maturation of rubella virus in the Golgi complex. Risco C., Carrascosa J.L., Frey T.K.  Virology. 312: 261-269. 2003.
  • Polymorphism and structural maturation of Bunyamwera virus in Golgi and post-Golgi compartments. Salanueva I.J., Novoa R.R., Cabezas P., López-Iglesias C., Carrascosa J.L., Elliott R.M., Risco C.  J Virol. 77 (2): 1368-1381. 2003.
  • Differences in virus-induced cell morphology and in virus maturation between MVA and other strains (WR, Ankara, and NYCBH) of vaccinia virus in infected human cells. Gallego-Gómez J.C., Risco C., Rodríguez D., Cabezas P., Guerra S., Carrascosa J.L., Esteban M.  J Virol. 77(19):10606-22. 2003.


  • Endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment membranes and vimentin filaments participate in vaccinia virus assembly.  Risco C., Rodríguez J.R., López-Iglesias C., Carrascosa J.L., Esteban M., Rodríguez D.  J Virol. 76 (4): 1839-1855. 2002.


  • Structural maturation of the transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus. Salanueva I.J., Carrascosa J.L., Risco C.  J Virol. 73(10): 7952-64. 1999.