• The viral replication organelles within cells studied by electron microscopy. Martin Sachse, Isabel Fernández de Castro, Raquel Tenorio, Cristina Risco. Advances in Virus Research, vol 105. DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2019.07.005. 2019
  • Function, Architecture,and Biogenesis of Reovirus Replication Neoorganelles. Raquel Tenorio, Isabel Fernández de Castro, Jonathan J. Knowlton, Paula F. Zamora, Danica M. Sutherland, Cristina Risco, Terence S. Dermody. Review. Viruses. DOI 10.3390/v11030288. 2019
  • Drug repurposing for new, efficient, broad spectrum antivirals. Moisés García-Serradilla, Cristina Risco, Beatriz Pacheco. Review. Virus Research. DOI 10.1016/j.virusres.2019.02.11. 2019
  • Targeting host lipid flows: Exploring new antiviral and antibiotic strategies. Alberto Fernández-Oliva, Paula Ortega-González, Cristina Risco. Microreview. Cellular Microbiology. DOI:10.1111/cml.12996. 2019.


  • Sachse M., de Castro I.F., Fournier G., Naffakh N., Risco C. Metal-Tagging Transmission Electron Microscopy and Inmunogold Labeling on Tokuyasu Cryosections to Image Influenza A Virus Ribonucleoprotein Transport and Packaging. In: Yamauchi Y. (eds) Influenza Virus. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1836. Human press, New Yoek, NY. (2018) 
  • Raquel Tenorio, Isabel Fernández de Castro, Jonathan J. Knowlton, Paula F. Zamora, Christopher H. Lee, Bernardo A. Mainou, Terence S. Dermody and Cristina Risco. Reovirus σNS and μNS proteins remodel the endoplasmic reticulum to build replication neo-organelles. mBio 9:e01253-18. 2018
  • Fernández de Castro, I. and Risco, C. (2018). Metal-tagging Transmission Electron Microscopy for Localisation of Tombusvirus Replication Compartments in Yeast. Bio-protocol 8(8): e2822. DOI: 10.21769/BioProtoc.2822.
  • Knowlton JJ, Fernández de Castro I, Ashbrook AW, Gestaut DR, Zamora PF, Bauer JA, Forrest JC, Frydman J, Risco C, Dermody TS. 2018. The TRiC chaperonin controls reovirus replication through outer-capsid folding. Nature Microbiology. DOI: 10.1038/s41564-018-0122-x.



  • Fernández de Castro, I., Tenorio, R., Risco, C. 2016. Virus assembly factories in a lipid world. Curr Opin Virol.18:20-26.
  • Nawaz-Ul-Rehman MS, Prasanth KR, Xu K, Sasvari Z, Kovalev N, de Castro Martín IF, Barajas D, Risco C, Nagy PD. 2016. Viral Replication Protein Inhibits Cellular Cofilin Actin Depolymerization Factor to Regulate the Actin Network and Promote Viral Replicase Assembly. PLoS Pathog. 12(2):e1005440.
  • Kovalev N, Martín IF, Pogany J, Barajas D, Pathak K, Risco C, Nagy PD. 2016. The role of viral RNA and co-opted cellular ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III factors in formation of tombusvirus spherules harboring the tombusvirus replicase. J Virol. 20: 02775-15.


  • Fernandez de Castro I., Risco C. 2014. Imaging RNA virus replication assemblies: bunyaviruses and reoviruses. Future Virology. 9 (12): 1089-1104.
  • Barajas D., Xu K., Fernandez de Castro Martin I., Sasvari Z., Brandizzi F., Risco C., Nagy P.D. 2014. Co-opted Oxysterol-Binding ORP and VAP Proteins Channel Sterols to RNA Virus Replication Sites via Membrane Contact Sites. PLoS Pathog. 10(10): e1004388.
  • Barajas* D., Fernández de Castro* I., Pogany J., Risco C., Nagy P.D. 2014. Noncanonical role for the host Vps4 AAA+ ATPase ESCRT protein in the formation of Tomato bushy stunt virus replicase. PLoS Pathog. 10(4):e1004087. (*) Equal contribution.
  • Risco C., Fernández de Castro I., Sanz-Sánchez L., Narayan K., Grandinetti G., Subramaniam S. 2014. 3D Imaging of Viral Infections. Annual Review of Virology. Vol. 1: 453-473.
  • Fernández de Castro, I., Sanz-Sánchez, L., & Risco, C. 2014. Metallothioneins for Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy. In: Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy. Methods in Cell Biology, vol 124, Chapter 3, pp. 55-70. Elsevier, ISSN 0091-679X.
  • Fernández de Castro I., Zamora Paula F., Ooms L., Fernández J.J., M.-H. La C., Mainou Bernardo A, Dermody Terence S., Risco C. 2014. Reovirus forms neo-organelles for progeny particle assembly within reorganized cell membranes. MBio. 5(1): e00931-13.


  • Sanz-Sánchez L., Risco C. 2013. Multilamellar structures and filament bundles are found on the cell surface during bunyavirus egress. PLoS ONE. 8(6): e65526.
  • Li B., Wang Q., Pan X., Fernández de Castro I., Sun Y., Guo Y., Tao X., Risco C., Sui S.F., Lou Z. 2013. Bunyamwera virus possesses a distinct nucleocapsid protein to facilitate genome encapsidation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(22):9048-53.
  • Fernández de Castro, I., Volontè, L., Risco, C. 2013. Virus factories: biogenesis and structural design. Cell Microbiol. Special issue “Cell Biology of Microbes” 15(1):24-34.
  • Risco, C., Fernández de Castro, I. 2013. Virus Morphogenesis in the Cell: Methods and Observations. M.G. Mateu (ed.). Chapter 14 in: “Structure and Physics of Viruses: An Integrated Textbook”, Subcellular Biochemistry 68, DOI 10.1007/9789400765528_14, Springer SBM Dordrecht.


  • Risco C., Sanmartín-Conesa E., Tzeng W.P., Frey T.K., Seybold V., de Groot R.J. 2012. Specific, sensitive, high-resolution detection of protein molecules in eukaryotic cells using metal-tagging transmission electron microscopy. Structure. 20(5):759-66.


  • López-Montero N., Risco C. 2011. Self-protection and survival of arbovirus-infected mosquito cells. Cell Microbiol. 13(2):300-15.


  • Fontana J., López-Iglesias C., Tzeng W.P., Frey T.K., Fernández J.J., Risco C. 2010. Three-dimensional structure of Rubella virus factories. Virology. 405(2):579-91.


  • Diestra E., Cayrol B., Arluison V., Risco C. 2009. Cellular electron microscopy imaging reveals the localization of the Hfq protein close to the bacterial membrane. PLoS ONE. 4(12): e8301.
  • Diestra E., Fontana J., Guichard P., Marco S., Risco C. 2009. Visualization of proteins in intact cells with a clonable tag for electron microscopy. J Struct Biol. 165(3):157-68.


  • Fontana J., López-Montero N., Elliott R.M., Fernández J.J., Risco C. 2008. The unique architecture of Bunyamwera virus factories around the Golgi complex. Cell Microbiol. 10(10):2012-28.


  • Fontana J., Lopez-Montero N., Risco C. 2007. Structural analysis of viral factories: from conventional microscopy to electron tomography. Acta Microscopica. 16: 42-51.
  • Fontana J., Tzeng W.P., Calderita G., Fraile-Ramos A., Frey T.K., Risco C. 2007. Novel replication complex architecture in rubella replicon-transfected cells. Cell Microbiol. 9(4):875-90.



  • Cabezas P., Risco C. 2006. Studying cellular architecture in three dimensions with improved resolution: Ta replicas revisted. Cell Biol Int. 30: 747-754.


  • Cyrklaff M., Risco C., Fernández J.J., Jiménez M.V., Estéban M., Baumeister W., Carrascosa J.L. 2005. Cryo-electron tomography of vaccinia virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102(8):2772-7.
  • Novoa R.R., Calderita G., Cabezas P., Elliott R.M., Risco C. 2005. Key Golgi factors for structural and functional maturation of Bunyamwera virus. J Virol. 79: 10852-10863.
  • Novoa R.R, Calderita G., Arranz R., Fontana J., Granzow H., Risco C. 2005. Virus factories: associations of cell organelles for viral replication and morphogenesis. Biol Cell. 97(2):147-72.


  • Risco C., Carrascosa J.L., Frey T.K. 2003. Structural maturation of rubella virus in the Golgi complex. Virology. 312: 261-269.
  • Salanueva I.J., Novoa R.R., Cabezas P., López-Iglesias C., Carrascosa J.L., Elliott R.M., Risco C. 2003. Polymorphism and structural maturation of Bunyamwera virus in Golgi and post-Golgi compartments. J Virol. 77 (2): 1368-1381.
  • Gallego-Gómez J.C., Risco C., Rodríguez D., Cabezas P., Guerra S., Carrascosa J.L., Esteban M. 2003. Differences in virus-induced cell morphology and in virus maturation between MVA and other strains (WR, Ankara, and NYCBH) of vaccinia virus in infected human cells. J Virol. 77(19):10606-22.


  • Risco C., Rodríguez J.R., López-Iglesias C., Carrascosa J.L., Esteban M., Rodríguez D. 2002. Endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment membranes and vimentin filaments participate in vaccinia virus assembly. J Virol. 76 (4): 1839-1855.


  • Salanueva I.J., Carrascosa J.L., Risco C. 1999. Structural maturation of the transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus. J Virol. 73(10): 7952-64.